This guide is for x64 hosts (e.g. the remastered trilogy). For the information on using the Memory class on x86 (classic era games) click here.

Memory Object (x64)

An intrinsic object Memory provides methods for accessing and manipulating the data or code in the current process. It has the following interface:

interface Memory {
    ReadFloat(address: int, vp: boolean, ib: boolean): float;
    WriteFloat(address: int, value: float, vp: boolean, ib: boolean): void;
    ReadI8(address: int, vp: boolean, ib: boolean): int;
    ReadI16(address: int, vp: boolean, ib: boolean): int;
    ReadI32(address: int, vp: boolean, ib: boolean): int;
    ReadU8(address: int, vp: boolean, ib: boolean): int;
    ReadU16(address: int, vp: boolean, ib: boolean): int;
    ReadU32(address: int, vp: boolean, ib: boolean): int;
    WriteI8(address: int, value: int, vp: boolean, ib: boolean): void;
    WriteI16(address: int, value: int, vp: boolean, ib: boolean): void;
    WriteI32(address: int, value: int, vp: boolean, ib: boolean): void;
    WriteU8(address: int, value: int, vp: boolean, ib: boolean): void;
    WriteU16(address: int, value: int, vp: boolean, ib: boolean): void;
    WriteU32(address: int, value: int, vp: boolean, ib: boolean): void;
    Read(address: int, size: int, vp: boolean, ib: boolean): int;
    Write(address: int, size: int, value: int, vp: boolean, ib: boolean): void;

    ToFloat(value: int): float;
    FromFloat(value: float): int;
    ToU8(value: int): int;
    ToU16(value: int): int;
    ToU32(value: int): int;
    ToI8(value: int): int;
    ToI16(value: int): int;
    ToI32(value: int): int;

    CallFunction(address: int, ib: boolean, numParams: int, ...funcParams: int[]): void;
    CallFunctionReturn(address: int, ib: boolean, numParams: int, ...funcParams: int[]): int;
    CallFunctionReturnFloat(address: int, ib: boolean, numParams: int, ...funcParams: int[]): float;

    Fn: {
        X64(address: int, ib: boolean): (...funcParams: int[]) => int;
        X64Float(address: int, ib: boolean): (...funcParams: int[]) => float;
        X64I8(address: int, ib: boolean): (...funcParams: int[]) => int;
        X64I16(address: int, ib: boolean): (...funcParams: int[]) => int;
        X64I32(address: int, ib: boolean): (...funcParams: int[]) => int;
        X64U8(address: int, ib: boolean): (...funcParams: int[]) => int;
        X64U16(address: int, ib: boolean): (...funcParams: int[]) => int;
        X64U32(address: int, ib: boolean): (...funcParams: int[]) => int;
    }
}

Reading and Writing Values

Group of memory access methods (ReadXXX/WriteXXX) can be used for reading or modifying values stored in the memory. Each method is designed for a particular data type. To change a floating-point value (which occupies 4 bytes in the original game) use Memory.WriteFloat, e.g.:

    Memory.WriteFloat(address, 1.0, false, false)

where address is a variable storing the memory location, 1.0 is the value to write, the first false means it's not necessary to change the memory protection with VirtualProtect (the address is already writable). The second false is the value of the ib flag that instructs CLEO to treat the address either as an absolute address (ib = false) or a relative offset to the current image base address (ib = true). As the definitive editions use the ASLR feature their absolute memory addresses change when the game runs because the start address changes. Consider the following example:

0x1400000000 ImageBase
...
...
0x1400000020 SomeValue

You want to change SomeValue that is currently located at 0x1400000020. You can do it with Memory.Write(0x1400000020, 1, 1, false, false). However on the next game run the memory layout might look like this:

0x1500000000 ImageBase
...
...
0x1500000020 SomeValue

effectively breaking the script. In this case, calculate a relative offset from the image base ( 0x1500000020 - 0x1500000000 = 0x20 ), that will be permanent for the particular game version. Use Memory.Write as follows: Memory.Write(0x20, 1, 1, false, true). CLEO will sum up the offset (0x20) with the current value of the image base (0x1400000000, 0x1500000000, etc) and write to the correct absolute address.

For your convenience you can find the current value of the image base in the cleo_redux.log, e.g.:

09:27:35 [INFO] Image base address 0x7ff7d1f50000

Similarly, to read a value from the memory, use one of the ReadXXX methods, depending on what data type the memory address contains. For example, to read a 8-bit signed integer (also known as a char or uint8) use Memory.ReadI8, e.g.:

    var x = Memory.ReadI8(offset, true, true)

variable x now holds a 8-bit integer value in the range (0..255). For the sake of showing possible options, this example uses true as the last argument, which means the default protection attribute for this address will be changed to PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE before the read.

    var gravity = Memory.ReadFloat(gravityOffset, false, true);
    gravity += 0.05;
    Memory.WriteFloat(gravityOffset, gravity, false, true);

Finally, last two methods Read and Write is what other methods use under the hood. They have direct binding to the Rust code that reads and write the memory. In JavaScript code you can use input arguments as large as 53-bit numbers.

The size parameter in the Read method can only be 1, 2, 4 or 8. CLEO treats the value as a signed integer stored in the little-endian format.

In the Write method any size larger than 0 is allowed. Sizes 3, 5, 6, 7 and 9 onwards can only be used together with a single byte value. CLEO uses them to fill a continious block of memory starting at the address with the given value (think of it as memset in C++).

    Memory.Write(offset, 0x90, 10, true, true) // "noping" 10 bytes of code starting from offset+image base

The usage of any of the read/write methods requires the mem permission.

Casting methods

By default Read and Write methods treat data as signed integer values. It can be inconvinient if the memory holds a floating-point value in IEEE 754 format or a large 32-bit signed integer (e.g. a pointer). In this case use casting methods ToXXX/FromXXX. They act similarly to reinterpret_cast operator in C++.

To get a quick idea what to expect from those methods see the following examples:

    Memory.FromFloat(1.0) => 1065353216
    Memory.ToFloat(1065353216) => 1.0
    Memory.ToU8(-1) => 255
    Memory.ToU16(-1) => 65535
    Memory.ToU32(-1) => 4294967295
    Memory.ToI8(255) => -1
    Memory.ToI16(65535) => -1
    Memory.ToI32(4294967295) => -1

Alternatively, use appropriate methods to read/write the value as a float (ReadFloat/WriteFloat) or as an unsigned integer (ReadUXXX/WriteUXXX).

Calling Foreign Functions

Memory object allows to invoke a foreign (native) function by its address using one of the following methods:

  • Memory.CallFunction - calls a function at the address and discards the returned value
  • Memory.CallFunctionReturn - calls a function and at the address and returns an integer value
  • Memory.CallFunctionReturnFloat - calls a function and at the address and returns a floating-point value
    Memory.CallFunction(0xEFFB30, true, 1, 13)

where 0xEFFB30 is the function offset relative to IMAGE BASE (think of it a randomized start address of the game memory), true is the ib flag (see below), 1 is the number of input arguments, and 13 are the only argument passed into the function.

The ib parameter in Memory.CallFunction has the same meaning as in memory read/write commands. When set to true CLEO adds the current known address of the image base to the value provided as the first argument to calculate the absolute memory address of the function. When set to false no changes to the first argument are made.

To pass floating-point values to the function, convert the value to integer using Memory.FromFloat:

    Memory.CallFunction(0x1234567, true, 1, Memory.FromFloat(123.456));

The returned value of the function called with Memory.CallFunction is ignored. To read the result use Memory.CallFunctionReturn that has the same parameters. Use Memory.CallFunctionReturnFloat to call a function that returns a floating-point value.

CLEO Redux supports calling foreign functions with up to 16 parameters.

The usage of any of the call methods requires the mem permission.

Convenience methods with Fn object

Memory.Fn provides convenient methods for calling different types of foreign functions.

    Fn: {
        X64(address: int, ib: boolean): (...funcParams: int[]) => int;
        X64Float(address: int, ib: boolean): (...funcParams: int[]) => float;
        X64I8(address: int, ib: boolean): (...funcParams: int[]) => int;
        X64I16(address: int, ib: boolean): (...funcParams: int[]) => int;
        X64I32(address: int, ib: boolean): (...funcParams: int[]) => int;
        X64U8(address: int, ib: boolean): (...funcParams: int[]) => int;
        X64U16(address: int, ib: boolean): (...funcParams: int[]) => int;
        X64U32(address: int, ib: boolean): (...funcParams: int[]) => int;
    }

These methods is designed to cover all supported return types. For example, this code

    Memory.CallFunction(0xEFFB30, true, 1, 13)

can also be written as

    Memory.Fn.X64(0xEFFB30, true)(13)

Note a few key differences here. First of all, Memory.Fn methods don't invoke a foreign function directly. Instead, they return a new JavaScript function that can be stored in a variable and reused to call the associated foreign function many times with different arguments:

    var f = Memory.Fn.X64(0xEFFB30, true);
    f(13) // calls function 0xEFFB30 with the argument of 13
    f(11) // calls method 0xEFFB30 with the argument of 11

The second difference is that there is no numParams parameter. Each Fn method figures it out automatically.

By default a returned result is considered a 64-bit signed integer value. If the function returns another type (e.g. a boolean), use one of the methods matching the function signature:

    var flag = Memory.Fn.X64U8(0x1234567, true)()

This code invokes a function at 0x1234567 + IMAGE_BASE with no arguments and stores the result as a 8-bit unsigned integer value.

    var float = Memory.Fn.X64Float(0x456789, true)()

This code invokes a function at 0x456789 + IMAGE_BASE with no arguments and stores the result as a floating-point value.